Glossary

AOC

AOC (Appellation d’Origine Contrôlée – Controlled Designation of Origin) is the French certification granted for wines, cheeses and other agricultural products that have certain French geographical indications.

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Apéritif

Apéritif is a drink usually served before meal.

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Appellation

Appellation is a legal definition under which a wine takes its name. The wine must comply with specific rules regarding the region, the alcohol level, and other quality factors in order for the appellation name to legally appear on its label.

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Blend

Blend wine is called the wine that comes from more than one grape variety.

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Botrytis cinerea

Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that sucks water out of the grape while certain flavors are imparted to the fruit for the future wine. This fungus develops when drier conditions follow wetter ones and results into distinctive sweet dessert wines.

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Botrytized grapes

Botrytized grapes are the grapes affected by the fungus Botrytis cinerea.

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DOC

DOC (Denominazione di Origine ControllataControlled Designation of Origin) is a quality assurance label for Italian food and especially wines.

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DOCG

DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita – Controlled and Guaranteed Designation of Origin) is a quality assurance label for Italian food and wines with further stricter rules than DOC.

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Dosage

Dosage is the process according to which, a mix of wine and sugar are added to the bottle of wine.

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Disgorging

Disgorging is a process where after all the crud of yeast has collected into the neck of the wine bottle, by freezing the neck, the crud freezes as well and it is removed from the bottle.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is the process according to which the grape juice is turned into an alcoholic beverage.

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Fortification

Fortification of wine is the addition of a distilled spirit in the wine.

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IGT (Indicazione Geografica Tipica) is the Italian wine classification that distinguisheses wines of high quality (called the Super Tuscans) that do not meet the official regulations of DOCG & DOC wine classifications.

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Lees

Lees refer to deposits of dead or residual yeast and other particles.

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Maceration

Maceration is the process according to which the juice of the grapes comes in contact with the grape skins and takes the color of the grape skins.

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Perlage

Perlage is the process of the bubbles that ascend, from the bottom to the surface, in a glass of sparkling wine. The more and longer lasting these bubbles are, the better the wine.

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Racking

Racking is the process of transferring wine from one barrel to another.

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Residual sugar

Residual sugar is the sugar that remains in wines after the fermentation of the wine, a fact that does not apply for all wines.

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Riddling

Riddling is the process according to which, the bottles are rotated upside down over a period of time in order for the dead yeast to be collected into the neck of the bottle.

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Sauternes

Sauternes wine is a French sweet wine that comes from the Graves section of Bordeaux. Sauternes wine is made from Sémillon, Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle grapes that have been affected from Botrytis cinerea, also known as “Noble rot”.

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Varietal

Varietal wine is the wine that comes from a single variety of grapes.

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Wine aeration

Wine aeration is the procedure according to which the wine is exposed and mixed with air.

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Yeast

Yeast is the component that turns the sugars of the grape juice into carbon dioxide and alcohol (ethanol) during fermentation.

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